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Full text of "A history of American watercolor painting"

WHITNEY MUSEUM OF AMERICAN ART 



A HISTORY OF 

AMERICAN 
WATERCOLOR PAINTING 



JANUARY 27 TO 



FEBRUARY 25 -1942 



TEN WEST EIGHTH STREET NEW YORK 



A HISTORY OF AMERICAN 
WATERCOLOR PAINTING 



tV it it it it it 



A HISTORY OF 

AMERICAN 
WATERCOLOR 
PAINTING 



* 



JANUARY 27TH TO 
FEBRUARY 25TH, 1942 



WHITNEY MUSEUM OF AMERICAN ART 
TEN WEST EIGHTH STREET • NEW YORK 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

Metropolitan New York Library Council - METRO 



http://archive.org/details/historyofwatercolorOOwhit 



O R E W O R D 



T^HIS EXHIBITION, the first survey of American watercolor painting to 
be attempted on so extensive a scale, begins with the nineteenth century when 
the resources of the medium were becoming more fully realized. Earlier exam- 
ples, of some possible historical interest, but of little aesthetic value, have been omitted. 

Throughout the exhibition, from the first days of the last century to the present, 
emphasis has been placed on the work of those artists considered to be most characteristic 
of their times. Groups of paintings by outstanding exponents of the watercolor medium, 
instead of single examples by many artists, give a broad rather than a detailed account 
of a subject which, in the light of contemporary taste and practice, is today assuming 
an increasing significance. 

In assembling the exhibition the effect of the war was felt to some extent in the quite 
justifiable reluctance of some collectors to risk their pictures at this time. In most cases, 
however, our requests for loans were granted in a most generous and courageous spirit. 
To the institutions and private collectors whose cooperation made this exhibition pos- 
sible, and to the many individuals whose advice and information were of inestimable 
value, the Museum extends its sincerest thanks. 

Juliana R. Force 

Director 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 



The Whitney Museum of American Art wishes to make grateful acknowledgment to those 
who have assisted in various ways in assembling the exhibition, and to the Museums and 
Collectors who have generously contributed works as loans. 



THE ADDISON GALLERY OF AMERICAN ART 

ALBANY INSTITUTE OF HISTORY AND ART 

ALBRIGHT ART GALLERY 

AMERICAN ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY 

AN AMERICAN PLACE 

ANTIQUARIAN AND LANDMARKS SOCIETY OF 

MR. BARTLETT ARKELL 

MR. EDWARD W. C. ARNOLD 

ASSOCIATED AMERICAN ARTISTS 

BABCOCK GALLERIES 

MR. JOHN I. BAUR 

MISS MARIA W. BLANCHARD 

MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS 

BOWDOIN MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS 

THE BROOKLYN MUSEUM 

CANAJOHARIE LIBRARY AND ART GALLERY 

MRS. MARIAN SADTLER CARSON 

THE ART INSTITUTE OF CHICAGO 

MR. JOHN J. CLANCY 

CLEVELAND MUSEUM OF ART 

MRS. ALGERNON COOLIDGE 

MR. EDWARD COYKENDALL 

MRS. AARON DAVIS 

DURAND-RUEL, INC. 

6 



Andover, Mass. 

Albany, N.Y. 

Buffalo, N. Y. 

Worcester, Mass. 

New York, N.Y. 

CONNECTICUT 

New London, Conn. 
New York, N. Y. 

New York, N. Y. 

New York, N. Y. 

New York, N. Y. 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 

New York, N. Y. 

Boston, Mass. 

Brunswick, Maine 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Canajoharie, N. Y. 

Bryn Mawr, Pa. 

Chicago, 111. 

New York, N. Y. 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Boston, Mass. 

Kingston, N. Y. 

New Rochelle, N. Y. 

New York, N. Y. 



MR. GEORGE J. DYER 

MR. HERSEY EGGINTON 

MR. ARTHUR F. EGNER 

MRS. WILLIAM C. ENDICOTT 

FOGG MUSEUM OF ART, HARVARD UNIVERSITY 

MR. GEORGE GROSZ 

HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY 

MR. J. D. HATCH, JR. 

KENNEDY & COMPANY 

M. KNOEDLER & COMPANY 

MR. AND MRS. JOHN KRAUSHAAR 

MRS. BANCEL LA FARGE 

LAWRENCE ART MUSEUM, WILLIAMS COLLEGE 

MR. ROBERT E. LOCHER 

DR. HENRY H. M. LYLE 

MACBETH GALLERY 

MRS. R. S. MAGUIRE 

MR. FRANK JEWETT MATHER, JR. 

MISS GRACE M. MAYER 

MRS. ROGER B. MERRIMAN 

THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART 

MILCH GALLERIES 

MR. CHARLES E. MILLS 

MISS RUTH B. MORAN 

MUSEUM OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK 

MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY 

MUSEUM OF MODERN ART 

MR. STEPHEN K. NAGY 

MR. HARRY SHAW NEWMAN 

NEWPORT HISTORICAL SOCIETY 



Norfolk, Conn. 

Garden City, N. Y. 

South Orange, N. J. 

Boston, Mass. 

Cambridge, Mass. 

I )<mglaston, L. I. 

Cambridge, Mass. 

Albany, N. Y. 

New York, N. Y. 

New York, N. Y. 

Hartsdale, N. Y. 

Mount Carmel, Conn. 

Williamstown, Mass. 

Staten Island, N. Y. 

New York, N. Y. 

New York, N. Y. 

New York, N. Y. 

Washington Crossing, Pa. 

New York, N. Y. 

Cambridge, Mass. 

New York, N. Y. 

New York, N. Y. 

Dedham, Mass. 

New York, N. Y. 

New York, N. Y. 

Cambridge, Mass. 

New York, N. Y. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

New York, N. Y. 

Newport, R. I. 



THE OLD PRINT SHOP, INC. 
MR. FRANK OSBORN 
MR. WILLIAM PALEY 
PEABODY MUSEUM OF SALEM 
HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF PENNSYLVANIA 
MR. BASIL PETROV 

THE PHILADELPHIA MUSEUM OF ART 
PHILLIPS MEMORIAL GALLERY 
MR. CHARLES PRENDERGAST 
MR. FREDERIC NEWLIN PRICE 
FRANK K. M. REHN GALLERY 

MUSEUM OF ART, RHODE ISLAND SCHOOL OF DESIGN 
MR. E. P. RICHARDSON 
MRS. JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER, JR. 
MR. CHARLES ROSENBLOOM 
MR. EDWIN A. SEASONGOOD 
MR. AND MRS. LESLEY G. SHEAFER 
MR. THEODORE SIZER 
MR. ALFRED STIEGLITZ 
ESTATE OF MRS. CARL STOECKEL 
MR. ROBERT GWYNNE STOUT 
SYRACUSE MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS 
THE TOLEDO MUSEUM OF ART 
MR. VICTOR MORRIS TYLER 
WADSWORTH ATHENEUM 
MR. MAX WEBER 
MRS. ROBERT WHEELWRIGHT 
WOOD ART GALLERY 
WORCESTER ART MUSEUM 
GALLERY OF FINE ARTS, YALE UNIVERSITY 

8 



New York, N. Y. 

Manchester, Vt. 

New York, N. Y. 

Salem, Mass. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

New York, N. Y. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Washington, D. C. 

Westport, Conn. 

New York, N. Y. 

New York, N. Y. 

Providence, R. I. 

Detroit, Mich. 

New York, N. Y. 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 

New York, N. Y. 

New York, N. Y. 

New Haven, Conn. 

New York, N. Y. 

Norfolk, Conn. 

Ardmore, Pa. 

Syracuse, N. Y. 

Toledo, Ohio 

New Haven, Conn. 

Hartford, Conn. 

Great Neck, L. I. 

Wilmington, Del. 

Montpelier, Vt. 

Worcester, Mass. 

New Haven, Conn. 



INTRODUCTION 



ALTHOUGH a watercolor is in fact anything painted in colors with water 

/■A as the medium, in common meaning it is limited to such a painting winch 
X Jl. is done on paper, with the further limitation, currently held, that the colored 
washes should be more or less transparent and that the paper should show white 
in certain areas. 

The present exhibition, containing only watercolors done on paper, excludes water- 
color miniatures done on ivory. But it does include paintings in gouache — colors 
ground in an opaque filler — as well as sketches which could be more accurately called 
tinted drawings. 

The exclusion of miniatures must be allowed, since these articles of jewel-like size 
and minute finish, which were often intended to be worn as pendants or brooches and 
which have a history of their own, would be lost upon the walls of a gallery when 
mingled with the larger and more varied works representing the full range of painting 
in watercolor in America. For that reason certain small portraits on paper by Jarvis, 
Inman, Sully, St. Memin and Elliott have been excluded. These are the size and type 
of miniatures, rather than small scale portraits like Vanderlyn's "Woman and Child," 
painted in France — a unique example, as is Sully's small preparatory sketch in water- 
color (Walters Gallery, Baltimore) for the life-size portrait of Charles Carroll. 

Otherwise the broadest interpretation has been given to the meaning of the word 
watercolor. It would be impossible to limit the exhibition to the kind of work called 
"pure" without eliminating much that is important, historically as well as aesthetically. 
It is necessary to include the magnificent studies of Audubon, many of which are a 
combination of watercolor and crayon, the decorative work of Corne, some of it done 
in imitation of wallpaper, and also the two small eighteenth-century sketches which 
are exhibited: one of them by Mather Brown being a toned drawing, while the other 
by Copley is typical of his work in England after he became in fact a British artist. 
The variety of uses found for watercolor in an early period cannot be illustrated without 
these examples, which supplement the carefully drawn views (resembling colored 
engravings) and the particular visual records, real or romantic, or merely intimate and 
unassuming, like those of James Peale, Jr., which constitute the full range of the medium 
before Winslow Homer and others began to experiment with it. 

The comparative scarcity of professional watercolors at an early date demands some 
explanation. In the first quarter of the century, when portraits were most in demand, 
the watercolor technique, traditionally confined to miniature painting, could not com- 
pete with oils and crayons in the production of impressive, full-scale likenesses. It was 
essentially the medium of amateurs. John Laporte's "Fourteen Tinted Lessons," show- 
ing the progress of "A Water Coloured Drawing" so as "to Enable Young People to 
Cultivate the Delightful Art," typifies the approach. Following these, or equally simple 
directions, acquired at first or second hand, school-girls were able to paint views, illus- 
trations and still-life. Some of them must have used cut-out patterns (templates) to 
shape vases and fruit neatly, since there is much duplication of curves in their work. 



Others were helped by their school-mistresses, as was Mary Ann Bacon who wrote in 
her journal in 1802: "Miss Pierce drew my landscape," and who also noted the reasons 
why a taste for drawings should be indulged : "It will agreeably exercise your ingenuity 
and invention, it will teach you to discover a superior finish in all the varied landscapes 
and scenery of nature, to survey the works of our distinguished masters with an higher 
relish and a more poignant curiosity and it will heighten all the innocent pleasures of 
your retirement when nature howls with wind." 

Cornelia Ludlow probably had a more professional training, since she was a pupil 
in what appears to be one of the first art schools in the United States, the Columbian 
Academy of Painting, run by the miniature painters, the brothers Alexander and Archi- 
bald Robertson. Perhaps the fact that the school also had courses in architecture and 
ship-building helps explain how Miss Ludlow avoided painting in a miniaturist's style. 

It was not unusual for grown men, young clerks, students and farmer boys to paint 
watercolors for amusement. Their "portraits" of streets and houses, or embellished note- 
books, are occasionally preserved in historical collections. Professional careers sometimes 
began in this fashion, as did that of Alexander Wilson, the ornithologist who anticipated 
Audubon. He painted naive little views, two of which are owned by the Museum of 
Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, before he acquired the skill to portray the 
beautiful "Ruffed Grouse" here exhibited. It is worth noting that this future master of 
a precise art began painting like any amateur, Dr. Orne, for example, who did a view 
of Washington Street, Salem (Essex Institute, Salem) about 1765. The peculiar char- 
acter of the amateur is timeless and universal. 

Professional painters often retained some of that character, as did David C. 
Johnston, called "the American Cruikshank," whose work was widely appreciated 
in the form of lithographic prints. He did not imitate the British caricaturists, nor 
was he limited to any particular subject-matter. Along with serious book illustration 
he did landscapes in watercolor, several of them suggesting knowledge of Turner's 
work, perhaps by way of book illustrations, while others are transcripts of actual 
places. When his sketches "came off," probably no one was more surprised than the 
artist. This naivete, which may make an engaging impression on us, contrasts with 
the quiet assurance and steady skill with which Krimmel painted genre scenes in 
Philadelphia about the time Johnston was there as a student of engraving. Krimmel, 
it should be explained, was trained abroad. 

Or consider the landscape sketches by Trumbull and Dunlap. The cautious sim- 
plification of Trumbull's English view suggests the amateur's point of view. And 
Dunlap's work is frankly amateurish and informal. Even the versatile Inman's "View 
of the Battery" is naive in effect, in spite of its professional brushwork. 

The first professional style of using watercolors in this country coincides with 
the growth in popularity of landscape painting and recalls the "antiquarian spirit and 
topographical taste" of the English watercolorists of the eighteenth century, who 
washed neat tones over precisely drawn details. The water medium may have seemed 
particularly appropriate because it reproduced the effects found in colored engravings. 
At any rate it was adopted for the presentation of particular views which were appre- 
ciated as records of the growth and embellishment of cities, parks, estates and business 



10 



enterprises. Those who did the work, if not English trained, mo .n least influenced 

by the English style, as Were the Irish-horn Wall and Uarralet. The Italian CalyO, a 

versatile artist who did novel work in genre, utilized that mode ol painting "pros 
pects." George Harvey also, although his miniaturist's technique and sensitiveness to 

effects of wind and weather set him apart. J. W. 1 hll, trained as an engraver to com- 
pose with clarity and neatness, had a personal appreciation oi pale sunlight and 

textures, which in his later work led him almost to impressionism; his still lite- oi 
"Smoked Herring" (Fogg Museum of Art) is almost post impressionistic. Thomas 
Birch, painting from nature sharply and distinctly, was poetically interested in nuances 
of tone. 

This early type of work, factual in aim, became romantic after the middle of the 
century. The simple technique of drawing and toning became a complex treatment 
of cross-hatching, stippling, erasing and heightening with Chinese white mixed with 
gum. An article in the Bulletin of the Art Union in 1851 gave instructions for land- 
scape painting in watercolor and explained how to use a soft sponge, an old silk 
handkerchief, a piece of soft wash leather, an eraser, and a sharp knife for scraping, 
besides how to make various kinds of washes with different sizes and types of brushes. 
The artist had a large choice of several dozen shades of color in dry cake, or moist 
cake form, as well as in tubes. All this, and the effort involved, went to the produc- 
tion of pictures which were not, as formerly, vistas, but were details and impressions 
of places. Artists began to notice over-tones of feeling. Thus F. O. C. Darley managed 
to make an Italian street scene seem quaint and tender, while A. F. Bellows, much 
appreciated in the 'seventies, labored to sweeten and soften a pastoral scene. 

It was this type of work — a translation into watercolor of the process learned 
in oil — which was admired in 1875, and not the "mistaken eccentricity" of Winslow 
Homer's "unfinished" work. Journals of the period which praised the study of "a 
picturesque old edifice" by Samuel Colman, first president of the American Society 
of Painters in Water Colors, because "every incident is worked up with great force," 
scarcely mention that A. H. Wyant, John La Farge and R. Swain Gifford also ex- 
hibited in that year their modest and deeply felt studies. A. F. Bellows, according to 
the reviewer in The Aldine, March, 1876, painted the finest picture of the current 
exhibition, "a noble example of the faithful and true in art;" but there was no men- 
tion of the nine watercolors shown by Homer, each one of which today would seem 
closer to the true than any of Bellows' over-worked efforts. 

Looking through the exhibition catalogues of the Water Color Society, organized 
in 1866 on the basis of a group of "some twenty artists and amateurs," who had first 
met in 1850-1, one recognizes that the foreign competition was considerable. In 1873 
the annual exhibition contained 354 American works and 204 by English artists. In 
1876 the reviewer in the Art Journal noted that "during the first years of the Society 
the exhibitions were largely made up of foreign pictures." The relative prices are 
revealing: in 1875 Homer's sketches were priced from $50 to $75, whereas Faustini's 
"Mutual Friends" was priced at $250, P. Vaini's "Teasing" at $500, and G. House's 
"Market Day at Honfleur, France" topped everything at $750. It is odd that today 
"G. House" is not recorded in the standard dictionaries. 

11 



Yet in spite of the pressure of European taste, the history of American watercolor 
painting is more than an account of influences. It is a succession of personal struggles 
to master a delicate medium in such a way that it satisfies the individual tastes of 
its practitioners. And if there is little continuity to the struggle, except in so far as it 
parallels that of painters in oil, at least it is evidence of the continuing desire of many 
native artists to do their work in a sincerely personal way. 

The developments in style and technique during the second half of the century 
are indicated in a multiplicity of ideals, rather more than in the coordination of 
"schools." Whistler, for example, might have been the first to appropriate Monet's 
technical studies or Degas' studies of movement, yet he followed a path of his own, 
a painter of impressions, of over-tones and simplifications of mood. Though art his- 
tory connects him closely with the impressionistic movement, he personally had other 
aims which were sympathetic to those held by Japanese printmakers. His delicate 
handling of poetic themes typifies one obvious aesthetic tendency at the end of the 
century, and one which failed to carry over into the painting of today. 

John La Farge, one year younger than Whistler, followed a parallel path of 
individual research against a background of admiration for the art of Japan. But he 
did so on the other side of the world and was opposite to Whistler in character. 
Where the latter's concepts were subtle and evasive, La Farge's were formal and 
concrete. While Whistler solved his problems intuitively, mulling over the beauties 
of perfect simplicity, La Farge attacked his intellectually and energetically. He de- 
lighted in strong color and sought it in the brilliant light of the South Seas. He sought 
Japanese art in Japan, not in prints. He painted his impressions carefully and com- 
pletely. This was a period of brilliant travel sketches — Robert Blum was making 
light-hearted records of Japanese scenery at this time, in 1890 — but no artist has 
made such records as did La Farge, with lyric thoroughness and well-informed 
delight. Sargent may have had more technical brilliance when he sought in water- 
colors the contact with reality which he felt he had lost in his portrait-painting career, 
but obviously La Farge had an incomparably greater sense of structure. 

Yet Winslow Homer was stronger than La Farge in this respect. From his early 
neatly tinted drawings, to the more elaborate "English period" compositions, down 
to the abrupt, crafty and complete records of his later trips, Homer modelled what 
he saw with implacable respect for the solidity of things. In an impersonal way he 
selected the complex action of a man paddling, the heaving sweep of water and the 
dense background of woods, combining them rapidly into an apparently spontaneous 
vision of the scene. Unlike La Farge, he worked in a wide range of tones which, 
sometimes merely black and white in subtle combination, more often contain such 
resonance and inevitability in the choice of greens, blues and browns, that his work 
seems to be loaded with color. His skill in the handling of washes and accents has 
been unmatched. 

Thomas Eakins also ranks above La Farge in structural ability. His watercolors, 
like his small paintings and sketches in oil, reveal the severe anatomist and analytical 
observer of genre subjects which do not cater to a particular sentiment, as, for ex- 
ample, do the reminiscent and anecdotal watercolors of Thomas W. Wood or E. L. 

12 



Henry. Compared to Homer's early work, Eakins' watercolors, most <>l which date 
from about 1S7 ^ to 1SS2, seem to be espe< [ally atmospheric and deeply modelled. They 
are in fact not drawings with added color, bul paintings which hive- the tonality, 
if not the shine and substance, of bis work in oil. 11 they seem old-fashioned in com- 
parison with Homer's smashing work oi twenty years later, the difference between 

them is to be interpreted historically, as an indication of the technical changes which 
took place in the last part of the century. 

While Homer was developing from an illustrator to a painter, the entire con- 
ception of Landscape painting was shifting from the objective to the personal — from 
the detailed observation of "unspoiled" nature, typified in the work of Cropsey and 
Sanford Gilford, who are known to have exhibited in the Water Color Society about 
1870, to the cultivation of the "motif." The scenery itself became, in the hands of 
Inness, Martin and Wyant, subordinate to the artists' feelings and aspirations while 
under the influence of nature. Inness began painting in the detailed manner and 
ended by painting loosely the mysterious moods of nature, shot through with odd 
lights and mists of color. Martin, following the Barbizon ideal, achieved gracious and 
reserved moods, classic in spirit. Wyant, in spite of the fact that he had first learned 
a comparatively hard style in Germany, became intimately absorbed in the massing 
of shadows and light, treated as symbols of the good earth. How far they had de- 
parted from the panoramic can be shown by comparing their work with that of their 
fellow-artist Thomas Moran, whose admiration for Claude Lorrain and Turner was 
tempered by his appreciation of the clear air and vast forms of the far West. 

Another change was activated by a group of painters, centering about Duveneck, 
who learned the dark manner of oil painting in Munich, but who found light on 
their watercolor excursions through the country. They wandered as far as Italy, 
sketching happy mementos of their trips. A few, like Currier, remained abroad. 
Others, including Shirlaw and Duveneck himself, returned as teachers of the new 
freedom in handling. Pennington, who studied in Paris instead of Munich, joined 
the group in Italy and remained more than twenty years abroad, a gay and eclectic 
reminder of this break with the tradition of tight painting. 

Still another revolt was in process. The impressionists in France were devising 
new methods of painting light, each in his own way, with various technical investiga- 
tions. American artists who attempted the problem followed these individual lines of 
experiment, eclectically. Theodore Robinson worked out a style which approximates 
that of Sisley, although he was a pupil and friend of Sisley's more radical contem- 
porary, Monet. Mary Cassatt turned frankly to Degas, but painted in her own solid 
manner. Hassam's academic schooling did not prevent his borrowing from the later 
impressionists and raising his color key to a high pitch. 

With the tendency toward a more subjective point of view and the post-impres- 
sionistic reaction against realism, techniques became still more varied and personal. 
Maurice Prendergast slowly evolved a fine mixture of shimmering tones, thick texture 
and loosely woven pattern, with which he accomplished effects paralleling those of 
Cezanne. The modernity of his art can be gauged by comparing it, not merely to 
the work of his contemporaries like Frank M. Boggs, resident of Paris, or J. Alden 



Weir, but to that of the younger men who were actually in closer contact with the 
French movement — Marin, for instance, and Weber. 

Marin broke through the tameness of his early work about the time of the 
Armory Exhibition of 1913. One of the few who have worked by preference in 
watercolor, he composes his New England views and city vortices at white heat, 
facing the mental image as frankly as Homer faced the woodsman and the fallen 
tree. He records the essentials as directly as he can and then roughly forces them 
into order and movement, frequently by adding arbitrary lines which frame or cut 
across the normal vision. The high air, the sun and the gliding boat are there; and 
the broken patterns only for a moment disguise the fact that the painter is intensely 
concentrated on actuality. 

More plainly realistic are Hopper, Marsh and Burchfield who have escaped 
French influences and who owe much of their individual power to what they have 
observed in Homer's work. Differing in temperament, they have discovered that 
physical order is important and can be made superb, that the life one reports on is 
an energizing force, and that simplicity of approach acts as a governor to regulate 
poetic sympathies. Like Marin, Burchfield is almost exclusively a watercolorist. These 
men appear to have chosen the medium for opposite reasons — Marin demanding 
quick visualization of his ideas, while Burchfield needs slow manipulation to convey 
the daintiness of spring air, or the weight of a rainy night. Between them they sum 
up the scope of modern watercolor techniques. 

At one extreme the sketch is sublimated. At the other a considered impression 
is critically executed. Infinite variations are possible between these modes of painting. 
Davies in his late work sketched Italian scenery with the deliberateness of an 
Oriental. Demuth, precise and thoughtful as he was, worked with tightly strung and 
vibrating lines. "Pop" Hart, as independent as anyone, sometimes rolled the sketch 
around until it accumulated bulk and permanence, sometimes left it stark and brief. 

Many artists (and there are literally hundreds of accomplished watercolorists 
who contribute to regional exhibitions) show that the medium today is adaptable, 
expressive and popular, whether used in an intimate or a formal way. The influence 
of Sargent is obvious, as is the more profound influence of Homer whose work 
inspires clarity and probity of method, directness of vision and aesthetic courage. 
Although present techniques are on the whole only a little more varied than those 
of the last century, one of the chief points which this exhibition makes is that the 
medium, instead of being subservient to other processes — engraving and oil painting 
— today competes with them and takes an independent and respected place in con- 
temporary art. It has its own syntax and carries its full share of aesthetic meaning, 
however varied that meaning may be. 

Alan Burroughs 



14 



CATALOGUE 



JOHN SINGLETON COPLEY 

Born in Huston in 17-57 or 1738; died in London, 1815. The extraordinary portrait painter of Colonial 

New England, he left Boston tor Italy in 1774 and settled in London, drvoiing DlOSt oi hlS time to lnstoiK.il 
subjects. 

1. CAPTAIN MAITLAND STANDING BY HIS HORSE i2'/ 4 " x 9 7 / 8 " 
Lent by the Wads worth Athencum 

JOHN JAMES BARRALET 

Born in Dublin in 1747 and died in Philadelphia, [812. Besides painting portraits in oil, he did landscapes 

in watercolor, engraved a few plates and made designs for other engravers. 

2. RIVER SCENE, about 1800 i6Y 2 " x 25 3 / 4 " 
Collection of the Whitney Museum oj American Art 



MICHELE FELICE CORNE 

A Neapolitan decorator, born in 1752, reached Salem, Mass. in 1799, painted some oil portraits and 
landscapes, but chiefly known for his ships and painted walls. He died after ten years activity in Newport 
in 1832. 

3. THE SHIP 'JOHN' OF SALEM, 1803 if/ 2 " x 23 1 //' 
Lent by the Peabody Museum of Salem 

4. SLOOP IN HEAVY SEA, (Design for wall paper) 33 1 / 4 " x i 9 !/ 8 " 
Lent by the Newport Historical Society 

JOHN TRUMBULL 

Son of the Governor of Connecticut, born 1756, Harvard, Class of 1773, Military Secretary to Washington, 
studied under Benjamin West in London, 1784, became Secretary to John Jay and Fifth Commissioner for 
the Treaty of 1794. He was President of the American Academy of the Fine Arts, dying in 1843. 

5. C AERFIHILLY CASTLE, 1 803 1 1 % " x 1 8 % " 

6. WORTHING, SUSSEX, 1803 9"xi 4 !/ 4 " 
Lent by M. Knoedler & Company 

MATHER BROWN 

Born in Massachusetts, 1761, and died in England in 1831, having studied under Benjamin West. He was 
official portrait painter to the Duke of York. 

7. STUDY OF A WOMAN, about 1800 W *5% m 
Lent by The Addison Gallery of American Art 

ANONYMOUS 

8. CHILDREN WITH GOVERNESS, about 1800-1810 14JCX17X" 
Lent by Mrs. John D. Rockefeller, Jr. 



WILLIAM DUNLAP 

Playwright, producer, historian, Militia paymaster, painter of portraits in oil and miniature, he was the 
"Vasari" of American painting. Born in 1766, he studied under Benjamin West from 1784 to 1787 "without 
profit" and became first Vice-President of the National Academy in 1826. He died in 1839. 

9. BETWEEN TROY AND LANSINGBURG, 1815 fA" miVz" 

10. GLEN'S FALLS FROM THE BED OF THE RIVER, 1816 $ l A" x 11" 

11. ON THE SENECA RIVER, 1815 8J4"xii%" 
Lent by The Brooklyn Museum 

ALEXANDER WILSON 

Born in Scotland in 1766, he came to America in 1794 and taught school near Philadelphia. Seven volumes 
of his life-work, The American Ornithology, were published between 1808 and 18 13, when he died. Two 
more appeared posthumously. The engraver Lawson taught him to draw and color. 

12. AMERICAN RUFFED GROUSE i 5 "xi8" 
Lent by the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass. 

WILLIAM L. BRETON 

Designer for engravers and an illustrator. Born, probably in England, in 1773. Active in Philadelphia in the 
1830's and died there in 1856. 

13. THIRD NEAR RACE STREET, 1829 7%" x 9 1 / 2 " 
Lent by the Historical Society of Pennsylvania 

JOHN VANDERLYN 

Born in Kingston, N. Y., in 1775, and died there in 1852. He went to France in 1796, a pupil of Vincent, 
and remained there until after the war of 181 2, with the exception of two years in America and travels 
in Italy. 

14. A LADY AND HER SON, 1800 ^"xn/z" 

15. VIEW IN ROME, about 1805 i6 3 / 8 " x n 1 // 
Lent by Mr. Edward Coy\endall 

CORNELIA A. LUDLOW 

An amateur artist who studied in the Columbian Academy of Painting, founded by Archibald and Alexander 
Robertson, miniature painters in New York in 1792. 

16. ROMANTIC LANDSCAPE, 1803 14% " x 19%" 
Collection of The Whitney Museum of American Art 

THOMAS BIRCH 

Born in London, 1779; died in 1851. He painted profiles in Philadelphia about 1800 and began painting 
marines, for which he is famous, in 1807. He was also noted as a landscape painter. 

17. AN AFTERNOON ON THE BANKS OF THE SCHUYLKILL, 1 805 6"x6%" 

18. FALLS OF THE PASSAIC, about 1820 i?y 2 " x 23 Vi" 

Lent by Mrs. Marian Sadtler Carson 

ANONYMOUS 

19. GOVERNOR'S ISLAND, 1816 i 4 "xi8" 
Lent by the Old Print Shop 

16 



JOHN JAMES AUDUBON 

The famous naturalist vrai born in 1 I.uti, probably in 1 7K5. Although his watercolor studies of bird-, date 
from as early as 1805, it was not until l8l0 that he thought ot preparing then tor publication and not 

until 1827 that the first plates Were issued in Kngland, where he spent much <»t his tune until 1 839. He died 
in New York, 1 85 1 . 

20. THE AMERICAN FOX, about 184s 23" 1 $3* 
Lent by Mr. Robert Gwynne Stout 

21. AMERICAN RUFFED GROUSE, 1805-1810 18" x 22" 

22. OSPREY 2(/xi 4 " 

23. SPIRIT OR BUTTERBALL, 1815 29" x 24" 
Lent by the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass. 

24. ENGLISH REDBREAST, 1826 2o"xi 7 !/ 4 " 
Lent by the Fogg Museum of Art 

25. CAROLINA PARROT, 1 81 1 u"xi 7 " 

26. CHUCK WILL'S WIDOW, 1821 io"xi 9 " 

27. WILLET, 1 825 16 % " x 1 9 Vi " 

28. YELLOW BILLED RAIL, 181 1 9/2" x 17" 
Lent by Harvard College Library 

29. ENGLISH PHEASANT SURPRISED BY A SPANISH DOG i8"x26" 
Lent by Mr. Stephen K. Nagy 

30. WARBLER, 1839 i 5 "xio 3 / 4 " 
Lent by Mr. Victor Morris Tyler 

JOHN L. KRIMMEL 

Born in Ebingen, Wurttemberg in 1789. Probably received instruction in art there under Alexander Rider, 
whom he accompanied to America in 1810. After only eleven years painting genre and small portraits, he 
died in Germantown in 1 821. 

31. ELECTION DAY, 1818 SY 2 " x 12%" 

32. MARKET DAY IN PHILADELPHIA, 1811 12" x i 7 %" 
Lent by the Historical Society of Pennsylvania 

JAMES PEALE, JR. 

Born in 1789, son of James Peale, the miniaturist, he died in 1876 in Philadelphia. Known chiefly as a 
marine painter, he also painted local scenes for pleasure. 

33. BEACH SCENE 8 Vi " x 1 1 " 

34. MARINE WITH SHIPPING, 1809 SY 2 " x i^/ 2 " 
Lent by M. Knoedler & Company 

ANONYMOUS 

35. GLASS BOWL WITH FRUIT, about 1820 i8/ 8 "xi 4 !/ 4 " 
Lent by Museum of Modern Art, Gift of Mrs. John D. Rockefeller, Jr. 

17 



WILLIAM G. WALL 

Born in Dublin in 1792. Began his career as an artist in New York in 181 8. Notable for his paintings of 
the Hudson River, which were done in aquatint by J. Hill and other engravers. He died in 1864. 

36. THE BAY OF NEW YORK, about 1823 2i"x2 5 1 / 2 " 

37. NEW YORK FROM HEIGHTS NEAR BROOKLYN, 1820-23 i5 1 /4"x2 4 " 

38. NEW YORK FROM WEEHAWK, 1820-23 i6"x2 5 " 
Lent by Mr. Edward W. C. Arnold 

DAVID CLAYPOOLE JOHNSTON 

Born in Philadelphia, probably in 1797, he learned engraving, 1815-1819, and became a book publisher, 
actor and worked for the Pendletons, lithographic printers in Boston, for over ten years. He always had a 
taste for caricature and exhibited paintings in the Boston Athenaeum between 1828 and 1861. He died 
in 1865. 

39. BEE SWARMING, 1820-25 87 8 "xii%" 

40. THE HEAVENLY NINE, 1823 io 1 / 8 "xi 3 %" 

41. A STUNNER, 1820-25 13" x 9 %" 
Lent by the American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Mass. 

NICOLINO V. CALYO 

Born in Italy, 1799, and died in New York, 1884, where he had been established since 1837. His plan to 
become court painter to the Queen of Spain in 1842 was abortive. He was most noted for his views of the 
city and city life. 

42. THE OYSTER STAND, about 1840 9/2" x 12^" 

43. THE SOAP-COCKS, about 1840 8 5 / 8 "xi2!4" 
Lent by the Museum of the City of New Yor\ 

44. VIEW OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK AND THE MARINE 
HOSPITAL TAKEN FROM WALLABOUT, about 1838 i6 3 /i"x2 5 " 
Lent by Mr. Edward W. C. Arnold 

HENRY INMAN 

Bom in 1801 in Utica, N. Y.; died in 1846. He painted portraits, landscapes and genre and was associated 
with Cephas G. Childs in a lithographic printing and publishing business between 1831 and 1835. 

45. VIEW OF THE BATTERY, NEW YORK, 1830 9 3 / 8 " x 12^" 
Lent by the Museum of the City of New Yor\ (The J. Clarence Davies Collection) 

ANONYMOUS 

46. LANDSCAPE WITH DEER AND WATERFALL 21 1 / 2 " x 27/2" 
Lent by Museum of Modern Art, Gift of Mrs. John D. Rockefeller, Jr. 

GEORGE LEHMAN 

Painter, engraver and publisher of prints, born in Lancaster County, Pa. Noted for his paintings of Penn- 
sylvania towns. He died in Philadelphia in 1870. 

47. WIRE BRIDGE AT FAIRMOUNT WATER WORKS 12 JJ" x2o 1 / 2 " 
Lent by the Historical Society of Pennsylvania 

18 



GEORGE HARVEY, A. N. A. 

Born in England about 1800. Came to New York in 18^0. After painting, miniature! in Boston from i v -"< 
to 1836, he became interested in atmospheric elicits oi the American climate and painted landscapes from 
Virginia to Canada. The exact date oi lm death is unknown, but occurred in Philadelphia sometime after 1877. 

48. ENTRANCE TO A COAL MINE, 1840-45 to" 1 13%" 

49. HOLUDAYSBURG, PA., [840-45 *"xi$%* 

50. FARM NEAR SOUTH LINE OF MICHIGAN, 1840-45 H%" 1 13/4" 
Lent by Kennedy & Company 



HENRIETTA MARIA HOMER 

Mother of Winslow I Ionur. Horn in BucksDOIt, Maine, 1809, she studied art in school and after her marriage. 

Painted throughout her life and exhibited occasionally. 

51. SWEET PEAS n"x 18" 

Lent by Miss Maria W . Blanchard 



JOHN WILLIAM HILL 

Born in England in 1812, son of John Hill, the engraver, who came to New York in 1816, he specialized 
in watercolor landscapes after working in aquatint and lithography. He died in 1897. 

52. THE CIRCULAR MILL, FOOT OF KING STREET, 

NEW YORK, 1833 9 %" x i 3 !/ 2 " 

Lent by Mr. Edward W. C. Arnold 

53. PORTRAIT OF ARTIST'S DAUGHTER, 1868 i 5 y 2 "xif 

54. WEST NYACK, N. Y, 1868 12" x 17" 
Lent by the Old Print Shop 



MARY HEMPSTEAD BOLLES 

Born in New London, 1811, and died there in 1859. The wife of John Roger Bolles, a printer and publisher, 
who issued pamphlets for children illustrated with woodcuts after her designs. 

55. LANDSCAPE, about 1840 1514" x 21 !4" 

Lent by the Antiquarian & Landmarks Society of Connecticut 



AUGUST KOLLNER 

Born in 1813 in Dusseldorf, he came to America about 1840 and drew city views which were published by 
Goupil. He died in 1883. 

56. FAIRMOUNT PARK, 1862 io 1 / 2 "xi 3 " 

57. NEAR PHILADELPHIA, 1863 6"x 9 1 / 4 " 
Lent by Kennedy & Company 

JAMES HENRY WRIGHT 

Portrait and landscape painter, born in 1813 and died in Brooklyn in 1883. 

58. LANDSCAPE 14" x 17" 
Lent by Museum of Art, Rhode Island School of Design 

19 



FELIX O. C. DARLEY 

Accomplished illustrator, was born in Philadelphia in 1822 and died in 1888. His watercolors recall his 
travels in Europe. 

59. A STREET SCENE IN ROME 7 1 / 2 "x9 1 / 2 " 
Lent by The Toledo Museum of Art 

THOMAS WATERMAN WOOD 

Born in Montpelier, Vt., in 1823 and died in 1903. Self-taught, he spent three years abroad studying the 
old masters. He was President of the National Academy from 1891 to 1899, an d President of the American 
Water Color Society from 1878 to 1887. 

60. AMERICAN CITIZENS, about 1867 2i 1 / 2 "x 4 o" 

61. CROSSING THE FERRY, 1878 27"x 34 1 / 2 " 
Lent by the Wood Art Gallery 

WILLIAM MORRIS HUNT 

Born in Brattleboro, Vt., in 1824, he studied abroad and was influenced by Millet. Returning to Newport 
in 1855, ne settled in Boston, in 1862, becoming a teacher of wide influence. He died in 1879. 

62. LANDSCAPE 8"xioff" 
Lent by The Art Institute of Chicago 

GEORGE INNESS 

Born in Newburgh, N. Y., in 1825, he studied abroad in independent fashion and evolved his own illusive 
and poetic style, working in the vicinity of New York City. He died on a trip to Scotland in 1894. 

63. JUNE, about 1878 6%"xi2!/ 8 " 
Lent by The Addison Gallery of American Art 

64. LANDSCAPE AND LAKE, about 1885 i^%"xi 9 %" 

65. LANDSCAPE WITH RIVER, about 1876 i 3 %"xi 9 %" 
Lent by Mr. Bartlett Ar\ell 

66. NIAGARA FALLS 16" x 25" 
Lent by Estate of Mrs. Carl Stoec\el 

ALBERT FITCH BELLOWS 

Born in Milbury, Mass., in 1830; died in 1883. He studied in Paris and Antwerp and travelled in England 
and Wales. His watercolors were much appreciated in the early exhibitions of the Water Color Society from 
1867 on. 

67. NOOK AT TOPSFIELD, MASS. 9" x 13 Y 2 U 
Lent by Museum of Art, Rhode Island School of Design 

JAMES MCNEILL WHISTLER 

Born in Lowell, Mass., in 1834, he settled in Paris in 1855, removed to London in 1859, travelled extensively, 
but made Chelsea his headquarters. Famous for his controversial gifts and his adaptations of Japanese art. 
Elected President of the Royal Society of British Artists in 1886. He died in 1903. 

68. CHELSEA SHOP 4 % " x 8 % " 
Lent by The Art Institute of Chicago (Walter S. Brewster Collection) 

6 9 . THE FIELDS AT LOCHES, 1888 5"x8 3 / 8 " 

20 



7 0. GREEN AND SILVER — THE PHOTOGRAPHER, 1888 5 %" xH%" 

Lent by Mr. Edwin .1. Seasongood 

71. GOSSIPS, AJACCIO io?4* x 7 " 
Lent by Albright Art Gallery 

72. LITTLE SCHEVENINGEN — GREY NOTE 4 J / 4 x8/ 4 " 

Lf«/ />y Museum of Fine . IftS, Boston 

jt,. SCENE ON THE MERSEY Hy 2 "x^/ 8 n 

Lent by The Metropolitan Museum of Art 

74. SUNDAY AT DOMBERG iffi x'i 9 !/ 2 " 
Lf/7/ £)> Fo^g Museum of Art 

JOHN LA FARGE 

Landscape and figure painter, decorator, glass painter, author and intellectual leader, he was born in 1835 
in New York and died in Providence, 1910. He travelled extensively in the South Seas and Japan. 

75. ADORING ANGELS, about 1886 Wx^/z" 
Lent by Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 

76. BRIDLE PATH, TAHITI 2 9 !/ 2 " x 33" 
Lent by Fogg Museum of Art 

77. GIRLS SLIDING DOWN A WATERFALL 17% "x n%" 
Lent by Mrs. Algernon Coolidge 

78. MEDITATION OF KUWANNON i2 5 / 8 " x io!4" 

79. PEAK OF MONA ROA, SOCIETY ISLANDS i8!/ 2 " x 19" 

80. TOKIO GEISHA DANCING IN THE HOUSE OF OUR 
NEIGHBOR, THE PRIEST i 3 %" x 9" 
Lent by Bowdoin Museum of Fine Arts 

81. PRESENTATION OF GIFTS, SAMOA, 1890 u"x8!/ 2 " 
Lent by Mrs. Banc el La Farge 

82. SPEARING FISH i 3 "x2o 3 / 4 " 
Lent by The Addison Gallery of American Art 

83. LANDSCAPE WITH WATERFALL, 1886 n" x y%" 

84. TWO FIGURES 8%"x 7 3 / 4 " 
Lent by Mrs. Roger Merriman 

WINSLOW HOMER 

"Father" of the modern American watercolor technique, was born in Boston in 1836. He began his career 
as an illustrator, but won success in 1863 with his first exhibited oil paintings. His work in both oil and 
watercolor became more poetic after a trip to England and gathered force throughout his career which ended 
in 1910. Though he lived in Prout's Neck, Me., from 1883 on, he took frequent trips to the West Indies, 
Florida, the Adirondacks and Canada. 

85. ADIRONDACKS, 1892 23 Vi " x 29 Vi " 
Lent by Fogg Museum of Art 

21 



86. AFTER THE TORNADO, BAHAMAS, 1 899 i 4 j/ 2 "x2i" 
Lent by The Art Institute of Chicago 

87. BEAR AND CANOE, 1895 i 4 "x2o" 

88. SHOOTING THE RAPIDS, 1902 i 3 %"x2i 3 /4" 
Lent by The Brooklyn Museum 

89. NASSAU, about 1898 24" 'X30" 
Lent by Mrs. Robert Wheelwright 

90. PROUT'S NECK SURF, 1894 23%" x$i l A" 
Lent by The Philadelphia Museum of Art 

91. RUM CAY, BERMUDA, about 1900 i^'xaoJi" 
Lent by Worcester Art Museum 

92. A VOICE FROM THE CLIFFS, 1883 20%" X2 9 %" 
Lent by Mr. Edward Coy\endall 

93. THE WRECK OF THE IRON CROWN, 1881 2o"x2 9 3 / 8 " 
Lent by Mrs. Bancel La Farge 

HOMER MARTIN 

Born in Albany in 1836; died in 1897. The influence of the Hudson River School of landscape painting was 
tempered by that of the Barbizon School after two trips abroad in 1876 and 1881-1886. He was one of the 
founders of the Society of American Artists. 

94. NEAR THE SHORE, about 1892 9 1 / 2 "xi 3 3 4" 
Lent by Mr. Hersey Egginton 

95. RUINED ABBEY OF GRESTAIN, NORMANDY, 1885 io%"xi 4 " 
Lent by Lawrence Art Museum, Williams College 

96. SAND DUNES, 1883 f/ 2 " ' xi^A" 
Lent by the Milch Galleries 

97. STRAND AND WRECK 10" x 14" 
Lent by The Addison Gallery of American Art 

ALEXANDER H. WYANT 

Born in Port Washington, Ohio, in 1836, he studied in Germany and was influenced by Turner and 
Constable. He first exhibited in New York in 1865 and was one of the original members of the American 
Water Color Society. He died in New York in 1892. 

98. FOREST GLADE, about 1 885-1 890 io 1 / 2 "xi5" 
Lent by Mr. Hersey Egginton 

99. LANDSCAPE 10" xi2& w 
Lent by Museum of Art, Rhode Island School of Design 

100. A LOWERY DAY 14%" x 21/2 " 
Lent by the Babcoc\ Galleries 

101. THE SWALE, about 1888 14%" x2i 1 / 8 " 
Lent by The Addison Gallery of American Art 

22 



THOMAS MORAN 

Born in England in 1837; died in [926. Taught himself as .1 young man in Philadelphia and vrai influenced 

by Claude- Lorrain and Turnei aftei .1 trip to England in 186a. 1 i< accompanied » Government Expedition 

to the Yellowstone in 1 87 1 . Noted as .1 watc-rcolorist and etcher. 

102. CLIFFS OF GREEN RIVER, WYOMING, 1879 QJi'xia' 

Lent by the Milch Call cries 

103. SIERRA NEVADA RANGE u" x 14" 
Lent by Miss Ruth B. Moran 

104. TETON RANGE, IDAHO 13%" x 19!//' 
Lent by the Babcoc\ Galleries 

WALTER SHIRLAW 

Born in Scotland in 1838, the son of American parents, who brought him to America at the age of three. 
He studied abroad seven years, mostly in Munich, and on his return to America became known as a 
teacher. He was the first President of the Society of American Artists and died in 1909. 

105. BALL GAME, MUNICH 8,V' x ic,,-.'' 
Lent by Museum of Art, Rhode Island School of Design 

HENRY BACON 

Born in Haverhill, Mass., in 1839, he went to France in 1864 and lived much of his life there. He died 
in 1912. 

106. AMERICAN BOATS IN THE VENICE HARBOR 13" x i 9l %" 

107. MY CAMELS RESTING, 1911 i 3 "xi 9 5 /8" 
Lent by Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 

R. SWAIN GIFFORD 

Landscape painter and etcher, born on Naushon Island, Mass., 1840, and died in New York, 1905. He 
travelled in Oregon and California in 1869 and later in Europe, Algiers and Egypt. 

108. THE HEN AND CHICKENS LIGHTSHIP OFF WESTPORT, 

MASS., 1889 i 3 "xi6H" 

Lent by Fogg Museum of Art 

EDWARD L. HENRY 

Born in Charleston, S. C, in 1841; died in New York, 1919. Pupil of Gleyre in Paris, he accompanied the 
armies in Virginia during the Civil War and specialized later in genre subjects. 

109. ENTERING THE LOCKS, 1899 ii"xi 9 3 / 4 " 

no. MACNETT'S TAVERN, 1909 14%" x 22" 

Lent by the Albany Institute of History and Art 

J. FRANK CURRIER 

Born in 1843, in Boston, he studied in Antwerp and Munich, where he lived until a few years before his 
death at Boston in 1909. 

in. WOODY LANDSCAPE, 1878 10JCX14K" 

Lent by Mr. Frederic Newlin Price 

23 



THOMAS EAKINS 

Born in Philadelphia in 1844, he studied abroad from 1866 to 1870, but developed his own solid style in 
serious genre and portraiture. Denied recognition during his lifetime, he was highly rated immediately after 
his death in 1916. 

112. JOHN BIGLEN IN A SINGLE SCULL, about 1873 i6%"x2 3 " 

113. NEGRO BOY DANCING, 1878 18%" x22 5 / 8 " 

114. SPINNING, 1881 i 4 "xio 7 / 8 " 

115. TAKING UP THE NET, 1881 9 1 / 2 "xi4 1 / 8 " 
Lent by The Metropolitan Museum of Art 

116. SEVENTY YEARS AGO, 1877 12" x 9" 
Lent by Mr. Eran\ Jewett Mather, Jr. 

117. WILLIAM H. MACDOWELL, 1891 27"x2i!/ 2 " 
Lent by the Babcoc\ Galleries 

118. THE ZITHER PLAYER, 1876 i2%"xioy 2 " 
Lent by The Art Institute of Chicago 

WILLIAM H. HOLMES 

A self-taught painter, was born in Ohio in 1846 and died in 1933. He was Curator of the National Gallery 
of Art, Washington, and Geologist and Archaeologist of the Smithsonian Institution. 

119. SUNRISE, CATALINA ISLAND i7"xi 9 %" 
Lent by Mrs. William C. Endicott 

FRANK DUVENECK 

Born in Covington, Ky., in 1848; died 191 9. He entered the Royal Academy of Munich in 1870 and became 
the leading teacher of his time. Returning to Cincinnati in 1888, he headed the Art Academy there. 

120. LANDSCAPE NEAR POLLING, 1879 I2j/ 2 "xi6" 
Lent by Mr. Charles E. Mills 

ABBOTT HENDERSON THAYER 

Born in Boston in 1849 an d died in Monadnock, N. H., in 1921. After four years in Paris, 1875-1879, he 
specialized in ideal figure painting and decorations, retiring about 1890 to Monadnock where he had 
many pupils. 

121. MONADNOCK WINTER, 1905 io/z" x 12%" 
Lent by Mr. George J. Dyer 

WILLIAM R. MILLER 

Born in New York in 1850 of German parents, he studied in Germany, 1 871-1873. He died in 1923. His 
principal work was in engraving. 

122. CATSKILL CLOVE, 1856 19%" x 14%" 
Lent by The Metropolitan Museum of Art 

THEODORE ROBINSON 

Born in Vermont in 1852 and died in New York, 1896. A friend and pupil of Monet, he returned to this 
country in 1880 and divided the rest of his life between Europe and America. 

123. CHILDREN FISHING, 1 881 8 5 / 8 "xi2%" 

24 



i2 4 . YOUNG WOMAN, 1889 i 3 3 / 4 "x9 7 / 8 " 

Lent by The Brooklyn Museum 

J. ALDEN WEIR 

Born in West Point, N. Y., in 1852 and died in IOIQ. Student at the Ecole da Beaux Arts in Paris in 1873, 
his style was tunned by association with Hastian-Lepa^e. Received many awards during Ins after. 

125. AN OLD FASHIONED FIGURE, about 1890-1895 13&* 1 10" 

126. TWO FIGURES, about 1 890- 1 895 9 I /2"x6 1 / 2 " 
Lent by Mr. Hersey Egginton 

127. ROSES, 1885 i 3 !4"xio" 
Lent by the Macbeth Gallery 

R. G. HARPER PENNINGTON 

Born in Newport, R. I., in 1854; died in 1920. Pupil of Geromc, Carolus-Duran, and also of Whistler, he 
spent more than twenty years abroad, including some time in Italy. 

128. PERGOLA AT PEGLI NEAR GENOA, 1879 10" x 14" 
Lent by Mr. Charles E. Mills 

FRANK M. BOGGS 

Born in Springfield, Ohio, in 1855, he studied in Paris and remained there until his death in 1926. 

129. ALONG THE SEINE, 1905 io"xi 5 3 / 8 " 
Lent by The Brooklyn Museum 

MARY CASSATT 

Born in Pittsburgh in 1855, and resident in France from 1868 to the time of her death in 1926, she came 
under the influence of Degas about 1886. Her taste played a part in the formation of the Havemeyer collec- 
tion of modern French painting. 

130. JEUNE FEMME ET ENFANT i 9 %" x i 3 !/ 2 " 

131. LA SERRE i4 1 / 4 "x23 1 / 2 " 

132. TfeTE DE FEMME 16" xiafc" 
Lent by Durand-Ruel, Inc. 

JOHN SINGER SARGENT 

Born in Italy of American parents in 1856, he died in 1925, a famous portraitist whose reputation began 
at the age of twenty-one. He was at home in England as much as in the United States. His last twenty-five 
years were devoted chiefly to murals and watercolors. 

133. BOBOLI FOUNTAIN, 1910 13 1 //' x i 9 3 / 4 " 

134. CORFU — A RAINY DAY, 1909 i 4 / 2 " x 21 tf" 
Lent by Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 

135. IN A HAYLOFT i 5 %" x n 3 / 4 " 

136. SANTA MARIA DELLA SALUTE i8 1 / 8 "x2 3 " 

137. A TRAMP i 9 5/ 8 "xi3%" 
Lent by The Brooklyn Museum 

25 



138. MUDDY ALLIGATORS, 1917 i3)4"xao!4" 
Lent by Worcester Art Museum 

ROBERT F. BLUM 

Born in Cincinnati in 1857, he began his career as a lithographer and illustrator. He made many trips to 
Europe and in 1890 visited Japan. He died in 1903. 

139. MARKET SCENE, SPAIN, 1881 ij l A"x2iY 2 
Lent by The Brooklyn Museum 

HORATIO WALKER 

Born in 1858 in Canada, he studied miniature painting, but came to New York in 1878 to open a studio. 
He was a member of the National Academy. Died in 1938. 

140. TURKEYS, 1898 ii"xi6" 
Lent by the Canajoharie Library and Art Gallery 

CHILDE HASSAM 

Born at Dorchester, Mass., in 1859; died in 1935. Beginning as an illustrator he spent three years in Paris 
and came under the influence of the Impressionists. On his return he lived in New York. 

141. BIG SYCAMORE, HARPERS FERRY, 1926 271/2" x 33" 
Lent by Fogg Museum of Art 

142. EAST HEADLAND, 1912 14" x 20" 

143. SUNDAY MORNING, APPLEDORE, 1912 13%" x i 9 3 / 4 " 
Lent by The Brooklyn Museum 

144. UNION SQUARE, NEW YORK, 1893 15 J£" xn" 
Lent by the Milch Galleries 

MAURICE PRENDERGAST 

Born in Newfoundland in 1859, he grew up in Boston, spent three years in Paris. He became slowly 
recognized as one of the foremost American Impressionists. He died in 1924. 

145. APRIL SNOW, SALEM, 1906-1907 i 4 3 / 4 "x2i 5 / 8 " 
Lent by Museum of Modern Art, Gift of Mrs. John D. Rockefeller, Jr. 

146. BATHING BEACH, ANNISQUAM, 1910 i^A" xi 9 %" 

147. THE LOUVRE i 3 3 / 8 " x i 9 V 2 " 

148. MAYPOLE, 1902 io%"xi5 3 / 8 " 

149. ST. MARKS, VENICE iaJJ" x2o 1 / 8 " 

150. SALEM HARBOR, No. 1, 1922 13)4" x 19/2 " 
Lent by Mr. Charles Prendergast 

151. HANDKERCHIEF POINT 2o"xi 3 %" 
Lent by Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 

152. RAINY DAY, VENICE, 1898 16^" x 12" 
Lent by Mr. and Mrs. John Kraushaar 

26 



H. BROADFIELD WARREN 

Born in Manchester, England, in 1 859 J studied art at Harvard University under Charles II. Moore and 
Charles Eliot Norton, and became instructor in wratcrcolor, Department oi Architecture. He died in "Ml- 

153. THROUGH THE HIGH PASTURES, DORSET, 1904 14 " x iy%" 
Lent by Fogg Museum of Art 

ARTHUR B. DAVIES 

Born in Utica, N. Y., in iS(>.s; died on a trip to Italy in 1928. Self-taught for the moft part, he developed 
a poetic style on classic themes, attempted cubism and worked in many mediums. 

154. MOTHER AND CHILDREN, about 1895 5 '/ 8 w x 10" 
Lent by The Addison Gallery of American Art 

155. PASSING OF DREAMS ^"xiG" 
Lent by Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 

156. ISOLA TIBERNIA, 1927 9 , / 2 "xi2 , / 4 " 

157. VIEW OF LUCCA, 1927 9 , / 2 "xi2 1 / 4 " 
Lent by M. Knoedler & Company 

GEORGE LUKS 

Born in Williamsport, Pa., in 1867, he developed as an illustrator and cartoonist after study in Dusseldorf, 
Paris and London. Early in the present century he became one of the leaders of the new "American School." 
He died in 1933. 

158. BEGGAR WOMAN, 191 5 i8 3 / 4 " x i 4 3 / 4 " 
Lent by Mr. Arthur F. Egner 

159. COAL TOWN, 1924 I3% m xi9% m 
Lent by Phillips Memorial Gallery 

160. PLUCKING CHICKENS, 1915 20" x i2 3 4" 
Collection of the Whitney Museum of American Art 

GEORGE OVERBURY HART 

Generally called "Pop" Hart, he was born in Cairo, 111., in 1 868. Self-taught, he travelled in Italy, Egypt, 
Tahiti, Samoa, Hawaii, Iceland, West Indies, France, Mexico and Morocco until his death in 1933. 

161. THE MERRY-GO-ROUND, OAXACO, MEXICO, 1927 if A" x2 3 1 / 4" 
Lent by Museum of Modern Art, Gift of Mrs. John D. Rockefeller, Jr. 

162. OLD FRENCH MARKET, NEW ORLEANS, 1917 i 4 1 / 8 "x 2 2 1 / 2 " 
Lent by The Brooklyn Museum 

1 63. PIG MARKET — MEXICO, 1 924 17 y 2 " x 22 % " 

164. TAHITI GIRLS, 1903 i^A" x nVz" 
Lent by Mr. Arthur F. Egner 

165. ROAD TO FEZ i6/ 2 "x22 1 / 2 " 
Lent by Cleveland Museum of Art 

166. THE BAHAMAS I3 y 8 " x2I JL" 
Collection of the Whitney Museum of American Art 

27 



ALFRED H. MAURER 

Born in New York in 1868, he studied there and in Paris, but was one of the leaders in the Armory 
Exhibition of 1913 and a supporter of Cubism. He died in 1932. 

167. SWEET PEAS 2o 3 / 4"xi7 1 /T 
Lent by Phillips Memorial Gallery 

JOHN MARIN 1872- 

168. GREY DAY — EBB TIDE, CAPE SPLIT, MAINE, 1936 19%" x2 4 %" 

169. HEADED FOR BOSTON, 1923 25 3 /4"x28%" 

170. LOWER MANHATTAN FROM THE RIVER, No. 2, 1921 26 3 4"x 3 2" 

171. PHIPPSBURG, MAINE, 1932 2o 3 4" X25 1 //' 

172. THE PINE TREE, SMALL POINT, MAINE, 1926 22/2" x 27K * 

173. STONINGTON HARBOR, MAINE, No. 4, 1926 23" x 28" 

174. WEST FORTY-SECOND STREET FROM FERRY BOAT, 1929 25%" x 32*4" 

175. WHITE MOUNTAINS, AUTUMN, 1927 2 5 1 / 2 "x3o 1 / 2 " 

176. WOMEN AND SEA— 1, VINTAGE 1941 2 3 3 4"x 3 o 3 4 // 

177. YOUNG MAN OF THE SEA— MAINE SERIES No. 10, 1934 2i%"x27 3 4" 
Lent by An American Place 

MAX WEBER 1881- 

178. A CUP OF TEA, 1910 
Lent by Mrs. Aaron Davis 

179. SUMMER, 1917 
Collection of the Whitney Museum of American Art 

180. CARD PLAYERS, 1917 

181. FISHERMAN, FISH AND SEA GULLS, 1917 

182. THE HUDSON RIVER, 1910 

183. INTERIOR WITH MEN, 1919 
Lent by the Artist 

GEORGE BELLOWS 

Born in Columbus, Ohio, in 1882 and died in New York in 1925. Pupil and friend of Robert Henri, he won 
rapid success with his lively paintings and dramatic lithographs. 

1 84. UNDER THE ELEVATED 5 % " x 8 % " 
Lent by Museum of Modern Art, Gift of Mrs. John D. Rockefeller, Jr. 

EDWARD HOPPER 1882- 

185. ASH'S HOUSE, 1929 i 4 "x2o" 
Lent by Mr. William Paley 

28 



48 


x 24 


X 


x 18H" 


22* 


x 19 


23' 


XI7" 


19' 


X22" 


2l' 


Xl8" 



i86. BEAM TRAWLER TEAL, 1926 14" x 20" 

Lent by Mr. Franks K. M. Rehn 

187. BOX FACTORY, GLOUCESTER, 1928 i 4 "x2o" 
Lent by Museum of Modern Art, Gift of Mrs. John D. Rockefeller, Jr. 

188. MARTY WELCH'S HOUSE, 1928 14**20' 
Lent by Mr. John J. Clancy 

189. METHODIST CHURCH TOWER, 1930 2 4 3 / 4 " x 19I/4" 
Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Lesley G. Sheafer 

190. MY ROOF, 1928 W/i"xilVi" 
Lent by Dr. Henry H. M. Lyle 

191. WINDY DAY, 1938 i 9 1 / 2 "x2 7 , / 2 " 
Lent by the Fran\ K. M. Rehn Gallery 

CHARLES DEMUTH 

Born in 1883 in Lancaster, Pa., and died there in 1935. Nominally a pupil of Chase and Anshutz at the 
Pennsylvania Academy, he developed individually through study of French Modernism. 

192. AFTER SIR CHRISTOPHER WREN, 1920 
Anonymous Loan from the Worcester Art Museum 

193. EGG PLANT AND SUMMER SQUASH, about 1927 
Lent by the W adsworth Atheneum 

194. FLOWERS, 1925 
Lent by Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 

195. GLADIOLI, FLOWER STUDY No. 4, 1925 
Lent by The Art Institute of Chicago 

196. ILLUSTRATION — BEAST AND THE JUNGLE, 1919 

197. ILLUSTRATION — TURN OF THE SCREW, 1918 

198. ILLUSTRATION — TURN OF THE SCREW, 1918 
Lent by Mr. Fran\ O shorn 

199. PLUMS, 1925 
Lent by The Addison Gallery of American Art 

200. RED CHIMNEYS, 1918 
Lent by Phillips Memorial Gallery 

201. IN VAUDEVILLE, 1916 
Lent by Mr. Robert E. Locher 

CHARLES BURCHFIELD 1893- 

202. NOONTIDE IN LATE MAY, 1917 2 i 1 / 4 " x ij%" 

203. TALL WHITE SUN, 1917 21^" x 17/4" 
Collection of the Whitney Museum of American Art 

29 



23%" 


x 19%" 


13^2" 


x. 9 j /; 


I7K2" 


Xll'/g" 


17/4" 


XIl'/2" 


8" 


X 10 


8" 


xio'/ 4 " 


8" 


xio!4" 


I7'/4" 


XIl3/ 4 " 


9%" 


XI3 3 //' 


10 %' 


x 7l6 



28" 


X33" 


35" 


x 39 " 


*5" 


x 34 " 


15" 


x i 9 !4" 


ilVi" 


X17K" 



204. LITTLE ITALY IN SPRING, 1927-1928 26*4" x 39%" 

205. RETURN OF THE LAKE FISHERMEN, 1930 23*4* x 33" 
i>«/ £)/ Mr. #«*/ Mr^. Lesley G. Sheaf er 

206. THE ROAD IN MARCH, 1939 i8"x2 5 " 
Ld-72/ £)/ Mrs. R. S. Maguire 

207. SIX O'CLOCK 32 Vi " x 38 Vs " 
Lent by the Syracuse Museum of Fine Arts 

208. THE WIND AND THE RAIN THROUGH THE TREES, 1935 i 9 V 2 " x 29V2" 
Lent by Mr. Charles J. Rosenbloom 

GEORGE GROSZ 1893- 

209. COUPLE, 1934 2 4 3 4"xi7 1 / 4" 
Collection of the Whitney Museum of American Art 

210. MESSENGER OF GOOD WILL, 1928 

211. OUT FOR A WALK, 1935 

212. MODEL UNDRESSING, 1939 
Lent by Associated American Artists 

213. DUNES, CAPE COD, 1939 

214. NEW YORK VISTA, 1935 
Lent by the Artist 

ADOLF DEHN 1895- 

215. AUTUMN, NEWBURGH, 1941 29"* 35" 

216. THE BERKSHIRES, 1941 28"x 3 6" 

217. BETWEEN THE ACTS, 1941 2 9 "x36" 

218. GUNNISON VALLEY, 1941 24"x 3 2" 

219. NEW ORLEANS NIGHT, 1939 i 9 1 / 2 "x28" 
Lent by Associated American Artists 

220. COLD DAY, 1941 i9 1 / 2 "x28" 
Collection of the Whitney Museum of American Art 

REGINALD MARSH 1898- 

221. NEW YORK FROM WEEHAWKEN i 4 3 4"x22 ,/ 
Lent by the Worcester Art Museum 

222. CONEY ISLAND BEACH, No. 3, 1940 26 1 / 2 "x 4 o" 

223. MEMORIES OF THE STORK CLUB, 1940 26 1 / 2 "x 4 o" 

224. SUN BATHERS, 1938 14" xi 9 %" 
Lent by the Fran\ K. M. Rehn Gallery 

30 



WHITNEY MUSEUM PUBLICATIONS 

The following artists included in "A History of American Watercolor Painting" are 
subjects of monographs in the American Artists Series published by the Whitney 
Museum of American Art. 



GEORGE BELLOWS 


by 


George W. Eggcrs 


MARY CASSATT 


by 


Forbes Watson 


ARTHUR B. DAVIES 


by 


Royal Cortissoz 


CHARLES DEMUTH 


by 


William Murrell 


EDWARD HOPPER 


by 


Guy Pene Du Bois 


GEORGE LUKS 


by 


Elisabeth Luther Cary 



MAURICE PRENDERGAST by Margaret Breuning 

Each volume contains a critical 
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on art, a short biography, a bibli- 
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reproductions. 

PRICE $1.00 

THOMAS EAKINS by Lloyd Goodrich 

PRICE $7.50 
ON SALE AT THE INFORMATION DESK 

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